12-lead ECG




The normal electrocardiogram.

ischaemic heart disease

Acute inferior myocardial infarction
Acute anterior myocardial infarction
Acute posterior myocardial infarction
Old inferior myocardial infarction
Acute myocardial infarction in the presence of LBBB

hypertrophy patterns

Left ventricular and left atrial hypertrophy - aortic stenosis
Right atrial hypertrophy
Left ventricular hypertrophy in the presence of left anterior hemiblock

atrioventricular (AV) block

First degree AV block
2 to 1 Atrioventricular block
Complete Heart Block
Complete heart block and atrial fibrillation

bundle branch block

Right Bundle Branch Block
Left anterior hemiblock
Left bundle branch block

supraventricular rhythms

Sinus bradycardia
Sinus tachycardia
Atrial Bigeminy
Atrial Premature Beat
Atrial fibrillation with rapid ventricular response
Atrial fibrillation with pre-existing LBBB
Atrial Flutter
Atrial flutter with 2:1 AV conduction
Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome with atrial fibrillation (20k)

ventricular rhythms

Ventricular premature beats
Ventricular bigeminy
Idioventricular escape rhythm in Complete Heart Block
Ventricular tachycardia with clear AV dissociation
Ventricular tachycardia with subtle AV dissociation (20k)
Torsade de pointes ventricular tachycardia
Polymorphic Ventricular Tachycardia with an ICD


Ventricular pacemaker
Dual Chamber Pacemaker with an ICD

Wolff Parkinson White syndrome

Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome
Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome with atrial fibrillation


Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator
Electrical Alternans - pericardial effusion
Long QT interval Romano-Ward Syndrome
Lown-Ganong-Levine Syndrome
Acute pulmonary embolus
Piggy-back heart transplant
Digitalis effect


The electrical axis at a glance.
A brief history of electrocardiography


© Copyright 1995-1998. Dean Jenkins and Stephen Gerred.